Planning: Action Research in Respiratory Care

Action Research Plan

The main focus while conducting my action research plan is to review student created e-portfolios for Respiratory Care education. I decided on e-portfolios after creating my own portfolio online via WordPress for the EDLD Master’s program. I have enjoyed creating and learning from building my platform. It has compiled my learning from course to course and I have used it as a reflection tool, as well as a place to store assignments and blogs as an ongoing resume. After, doing many different literature reviews that focused on the advantages, disadvantages, barriers, or what has worked with e-portfolios I believe that implementing this program into respiratory education would be beneficial to the students.

Therefore, the purpose of the research was to determine if student created e-portfolios, an authentic learning platform used to enhance engagement, will allow for the development of blogs and vlogs presentations, clinical competencies and ease of feedback for instructors. Also, will it provide reflection from semester to semester, a source bank to study for exams, and for resumes post-graduation. The purpose of my research focuses more on respiratory care students and how reflection is used via e-portfolios.

Does the use of student created e-portfolios, in higher education by respiratory care students provide reflection from semester to semester to help retain course and clinical information, provide as a study guide for exams, and provide a source to prospective employers as a resume? When searching for sources during the research it was limited to reflection and would the students be able to use the information posted on the e-portfolio each semester to either review for upcoming exams or rely on it to refresh their memory from semester to semester. Also, I looked at the information that would be posted by the students and how it could be built to provide for an ongoing resume for prospective employers post graduation.

The design is qualitative because the goal is to observe the problem by way of generating narrative. I chose qualitative data due to the fact of the nature of my question. I also only have twelve students in each year such as, one group is first year students and the other is the second year students (they become 2nd year in the Fall) about to graduate in the Spring. I usually see them almost everyday since they are a very small group. I believe measuring them using qualitative data would give me the best outcome and information needed to complete my study. To measure the outcome of the research question, the following data will be collected and analyzed: Data analyzed from face to face interviews, google surveys, and evaluations from past and current students, as well as faculty gathered from the end of Spring semester. Data from google surveys and interviews will be entered and analyzed via excel spreadsheets based on the information received back from present, past students, and faculty from May semesters. I will send the surveys out at the end of the semester to the current instructors who will be providing feedback via e-portfolios, current students using them, and graduating students. I will then compile the surveys into an excel spreadsheet to analyze the data.

The literature review summary proven that there was no information of the development of e-portfolios into students in the respiratory care program for reflection and learning for their future development as a respiratory therapist. The primary purpose to develop e-portfolio is to provide a platform that provides students choice and voice in their learning, development, creation of projects via vlogs and blogs, and a place to showcase their learning for prospective employment. There was limited information on implementation of e-portfolios in medical students, nursing, and ancillary fields. Therefore, there will have to be a new approach to my study on respiratory care student created e-portfolios to provide reflection, feedback, and authentic learning.

The following will show the steps and timeline for the research study:

  • Implementation of the Plan
    • The plan will be implemented Fall semester of 2019
    • 2nd year students entering their 4th semester. There are 9 students in that current group.
    • Clinical instructors will be creating their e-portfolios at this time.
    • This will allow time for training and instruction.
    • 1st year students will create their e-portfolios beginning of their 2nd semester in January 2020. There should be at most 12 students in that group.
  • Collect and Analyze the Data
    • Collection of the data will be at the end of the Spring semester, May 2020. Once, all the data is collected, the information will be analyzed by the end of May, first of June 2020.
  • Develop the Action Plan
    • During, Summer 1 session once all of the information has been analyzed the action plan will be developed and finished by July 2020.
  • Share and Communicate Your Results
    • Upon return of Fall 2020, the week prior to the semester starting there will be a short meeting with the Dean of Health Careers, Program Director of Respiratory Care, Director of Clinical Education of Respiratory Care, and Clinical Instructors regarding the results analyzed.
  • Reflect on the Process
    • During the meeting we will reflect on the process with the DCE and CI to analyze the feedback given by the students and instructors. At that time, we will reflect on what could have been done better, what could be done differently, and what was done right.

The following is an example of the google survey that will be used during the collect and analyze stage. Then the data will be exported into excel and analyzed via google sheets or excel.

Student Created E-Portfolios RC

When I reflect back on Respiratory school, I remember little memories from clinical, lab, and lecture. What I do remember the most are the important things that I learned that helped me save the numerous lives since becoming a, Respiratory Therapist. There were many times we had fun while at clinical, but learning to me has always been fun when I am engaged. We were never allowed to be our authentic selves. Everything that we did during the program was by structure and structure only. Even the assignments structure: where this is how it is or you do not make a good score. We would have case studies once a year that we were allowed to pick a patient, but it must be in a structure and the presentation was how they wanted us to present it.

Memorial Herman PICU, 2012
Simulation Lab 2012

Now, that I have become an instructor over that same program I have learned that is not how we or students should learn. That is not the best way to encourage students in this era to be engaged and want to succeed. I still require that same case study to be done, because it must be done for our students to learn how to properly treat a patient. I believe the presentation needs to be changed up. That is what must come next.

Therefore, I would have never created an E-portfolio had I not chose this program. The thing that I have seen that would best suit my students with E-portfolios at first would be reflection. If they were able to reflect each semester on their assignments, blogs, vlogs, or presentations according to the COVA model, this would allow them to be more engaged and better prepare them for the next step each course. Like most programs, ours is builds each semester with their e-portfolios they could take a look back on what they learned to refresh their memories. The students could also use these as ongoing sources to add information collected to provide resumes to future employers. The instructors or faculty would also be able to use them to provide ease of feedback to the students. In healthcare, feedback is one of the most important resources a student or health professional can receive. We are saving lives! Our goal is to provide the best and upmost feedback to students to produces professional Registered Respiratory Therapist.

Instead of reflecting on books let’s use our online resources to engage our students

I have done numerous research on how E-portfolios would be the best fit for Angelina College’s Respiratory Care Program. The next step was the action research I recently created an action research outline. As well as, the Action Research: literature review on E-portfolios you will find below.

After conducting my research, I have found zero to no information regarding first Respiratory Care and E-portfolios, next Respiratory Care and Reflection. I had to go a broader subject of health care and even that is limited to few or little research. I will find myself doing a more detailed study on respiratory education and E-portfolios in the coming months.

Developing My Action Research

After researching and developing the last two literature reviews over my innovation plan has shown me either the need for E-portfolios in my program or the lack there of in health career education. There is plenty of information over my topic to be found over e-portfolios but, little to be found over health care education in higher ed and little to none in respiratory care.

Therefore, I would like to begin my implementation for my students once they have been in the program for at least one semester. We currently use a data collection system for clinical that evaluates them, checks offs competencies, doctor interactions, and journals. My plan is to send my past and current students at the end of Spring semester google surveys, as well as conduct face to face meetings. Below, you will find an outline that shows the plan for my action research for implementation of e-portfolios.

Action Research Outline

    1. Focus: Student created e-portfolios for Respiratory Care education.
    2. Purpose: To determine if student created, e-portfolios an authentic learning platform to enhance engagement, develop blogs and vlogs presentations, clinical competencies and ease of feedback for instructors; provide reflection from semester to semester, a source bank to study for exams, and for resumes post-graduation.
    3. Research Question: Does the use of student created e-portfolios, in higher education by respiratory care students provide reflection from semester to semester to help retain course and clinical information, and provide as a study guide for exams, provide a source to prospective employers as a resume?
    4. Research Design: The design is qualitative because the goal is to observe the problem by way of generating narrative.
    5. Data to be Collected: To measure the outcome of the research question, the following data will be collected and analyzed: Data analyzed from face to face interviews, google surveys, and evaluations from past and current students, as well as faculty gathered from the end of Spring semester.
    6. Measurement Instrument(s): Data from google surveys and interviews will be entered and analyzed via excel spreadsheets based on the information received back from present, past students, and faculty from May semesters.
    7. Focus of Literature Review: The literature review will give a summary of the development of e-portfolios into students in the respiratory care program for reflection and learning for their future development as a respiratory therapist. The primary purpose to develop e-portfolio is to provide a platform that provides students choice and voice in their learning, development, creation of projects via vlogs and blogs, and a place to showcase their learning for prospective employment.


Assessing Digital Learning & Instruction

Research, requires a good plan and a good plan needs to start with a great outline. If you create a good outline to start with you will be able to follow and it will make it easier when conducting you research. Before, conducting my action research I developed my action research outline that specified the steps of how I wanted to conduct my research, how I would like to analyze and review the information. Action Research Outline.

After conducting, my research it showed no research that involved e-portfolios and respiratory care education. I focused my research on reflection and there was little to none regarding health careers, it was mostly focused on education majors in higher education. This would be do to the fact that e-portfolios began with Education and English majors. Therefore, I will have to take a different approach on my study. I will have to focus on my students and their reflection approach. Action Research: Literature Review

Action Plan

Finally, I developed an action plan. I reflected on my action literature review that I conducted over e-portfolios and what I would need to do to implement the process. Above you will notice my timeline for implementation, development, and reflection on student created e-portfolios. Action Research Plan

Implementing Innovation Strategies

Over the last few weeks I have researched many different ways that my innovation plan could be utilized. Not only did I find different ways that it would be not so great, be successful, and lessons I could learn from other organizations. I recently, reviewed many different institutions case studies regarding what worked or didn’t in my recent literature review. You will find below a highlight of what I learned from that literature review.

What Worked

What Could Have been Done Better

Lessons Learned

Throughout my research, I learned many different lessons that I believe will be effective when implementing my e-portfolios this Fall or Spring. I still have many things to consider when bringing this concept to my students. I believed that I had a solid plan to review the many case studies that we reviewed over the course of the last few weeks. Below you will find a few barriers I reviewed when working through my research. I have found there are many ways that these processes need to be thought out and should be done better.

#1 When you look at number one you have to consider the teacher/instructor buy-in. Why, you ask? Well the are the person delivering the information to our students. We need to make sure they are on board. If they are not on board and convinced the plan is sure to fail. They may plan to use them because they are told but, if they do not see the actual need for them they will not effectively enforce the proper use of the e-portfolio. Also, when implementing technology we need to ensure the education to our faculty on proper use of the program. They will need some type of professional learning, in order to teach the program to their students. Therefore, if we look at the University of Calargary we will notice they implemented e-portfolios but, failed to ensure that their faculty was properly trained. We need to make sure we do not lack the proper tools to follow through with our education to faculty to produce a great learning experience to our students. What the implementation at the University of Calgary did not take into consideration was the increased need for continuing professional development (CPD). Baylor and Ritchie (2002) argued correct teacher training must be taught when technology is involved in the classroom .

#2 Next, we take into consideration the access to WIFI in rural communities and globally. Due to limited connectivity the student’s home in Ireland their students are limited to only using their computers in school. One teacher in post-primary Ireland stated, asking their students to reflect on any type of learning, homework, using their e-portfolios would not be worth it; and their time is limited during school hours to work on their e-portfolios (Brown, Burns, O’Brien, O’Hara, McNamara, & Poole, 2018). When I look at implementing e-portfolios into Respiratory Care I do not believe that my students would get the actual best use out of them if they were limited to to the time they had to reflect on their work. Although, this is an issue I do have to consider. Most of my students to live in very rural areas where they have either satellite internet, little internet, or no internet capabilities. Therefore, when accessing them based on their e-portfolios this would have to be considered.

#3 Last, we need to look at how instructors provide feedback and students spend on their reflections. In a study by Strudler and Wetzel (2011/12) it was found that portfolio reflections are more meaningful if an instructor provides in-depth feedback (Oakley, Johnston, & Pegrum, 2013). My students currently are journaling each week on a set program/portfolio that they pay for once they enter our program. My instructors do not look at their submissions each week, they wait till the end of the semester. Then they are so far behind they give little feedback or even look at them. I am able to review a few and my students are pouring their heart and souls into their reflections of their weeks at clinical and then as the semester gets closer they tend to slack off. I believe this is due to my instructors not providing them the proper feedback that need or expected. I feel like this might be a failed attempt on my part. Therefore, after experiencing building my own e-portfolio, reviewing the researching, and observing my students input I need to educate my instructors on the reasons for effective feedback.

I believe researching different institutions that have went through the implementation of e-portfolios has had me look at a new way to integrate my implementation plan. My students will really benefit from the implementation of eps and I believe if it is done correctly they will receive the best benefits.


Andrews, T., & Cole, C. (2015). Two steps forward, one step back: The intricacies of engaging with

eportfolios in nursing undergraduate education. Nurse Education Today, 35(4), 568–572.

Bair, H. & Mueller, R. A. (2019). Deconstructing the Notion of ePortfolio as a ‘High Impact             Practice’: A Self-Study and Comparative Analysis. Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of             Teaching and Learning, Volume 9 (Issue 3), Pp1-14. Retrieved from URL: https://doaj-

Blair, R., & Godsall, L. (2006). One School’s Experience in Implementing E-Portfolios: Lessons

Learned. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 7(2), 145–153. Retrieved from https://search-


Brown, Martin, Burns, Denise, McNamara, Gerry, O’Brien, Shivaun, O’Hara, Joe, Poole, Paige.

         (2018). Challenges and supports towards the integration of ePortfolios in education.

         Lessons to be learned from Ireland. Retrieved from.

Carl, A., & Strydom, S. (2017). e-Portfolio as reflection tool during teaching practice: The

interplay between contextual and dispositional variables. South African Journal of Education,

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Feather, R., & Ricci, M. (2014). Use of Eportfolio Presentations in a Baccalaureate Nursing

Program. College Student Journal, 48(4), 549–558. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-

Foulkes, J., Scallan, S., Coles, C., & Elmer, R. (2011). Observations on the case for reclaiming

portfolio log entries as assessments for learning. Education for Primary Care, 22(1), 14.

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Kahn, Susan. (2014). E-Portfolios: A Look at Where We’ve Been, Where We Are Now, and      

           Where We’re (Possibly) Going. Retrieved from          been-where-we-are-now-and-where-were

Oakley, G., Pegrum, M., & Johnston, S. (2014). Introducing e-portfolios to pre-service teachers as

tools for reflection and growth: lessons learnt. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 42(1),


Reis, R. (2018). Stanford. Tomorrow’s Professor Postings. The Benefits of E-Portfolios for

       students and Faculty in Their Own Words. REtrieved from

Swan, G. (2009). Examining barriers in faculty adoption of an e-portfolio system. Australasian

Journal of Educational Technology, 25(5), 627. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-

Tzeng, J., & Chen, S. (2012). College students’ intentions to use e-portfolios: From the

perspectives of career-commitment status and weblog-publication behaviours. ​British

Journal Of Educational Technology​, ​43​(1), 163-176. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01165.x

Xerri, D., & Campbell, C. (2016). E-portfolios in teacher development: the better option? ELT

Journal: English Language Teaching Journal, 70(4), 392–400. https://doi-

Yang, M., Tai, M., & Lim, C. P. (2016). The Role of e-Portfolios in Supporting Productive Learning.

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A Call To Action: E-Portfolios

ePortfolios are student-owned, dynamic digital workspaces wherein students can capture their learning and their ideas, access their collection of work, reflect on their learning, share it, set goals, seek feedback and showcase their learning and achievements (Brown, Burns, McNamara, O’Brien, O’hara, & Poole, 2018).

Implementing E-portfolios into not only the respiratory care program but, eventually all of health careers at Angelina College would be an ultimate goal of mine. I believe eps give our students the power to use the COVA model that we have focused our learning around. I look forward to presenting this to my co-workers, program director, and administration to help improve our students learning through choice, ownership, voice and authentic learning. Below, you will view a video that shows ways others found E-portfolios to be successful and unsuccessful. As well as, how I plan to learn from others and ensure that we have everything in place properly for implementation to work out efficiently.

A Call to Action


Brown, Martin, Burns, Denise, McNamara, Gerry, O’Brien, Shivaun, O’Hara, Joe, Poole, Paige.

(2018). Challenges and supports towards the integration of ePortfolios in education.

Lessons to be learned from Ireland. Retrieved from.

Fritschi, Jennifer & Wolf, Mary Ann. (2012). Turning on mobile learning in north America.

Retrieved from.

Kelly, Jacquie, Murray, Sue, Peacock, Susi & Scott, Alison. (2011). The transformative role of

eportfolios: feedback in healthcare learning. Retrieved from.

Latham, Nancy & Meyer, Barbara. (2008). Implementing electronic portfolios: benefits,

challenges, & suggestions. Retrieved from. challenges-and-suggestions

E-Portfolios: Planning for PL

My professional learning plan, consist of implementation of E-Portfolios initially into Respiratory Care but eventually, throughout health careers at Angelina College where I teach at. I have constructed my innovation plan that shows how important it will be for our program to establish E-Portfolios in the classroom. The attached outline for establishing a plan for PL represents the 3 column table as well as my disruptive instructional design model.

Professional Learning: A CALL TO ACTION


Currently, our campus does professional learning each semester for half a day one day broke up into different sections. They are short and sometimes they go way to fast and mostly are forgotten. I only remember one time they paid a person to come in and actually do a two hour seminar and he had us interact with one another. But, it was long forgotten as well. I really want something to change. I am constantly telling my co-workers how I would love to learn new innovative ideas to teach. If it wasn’t for being in the EDLD program I would not have learned so many new ideas to teach to my students. I also, believe that making it more authentic to our health career campus would be more beneficial to our instructors and would allow them to be more available for learning.


I used adobe spark to create my video and voice over. I tried to first embedded it into my e-portfolio above with adobe. But, I kept having complications where the video did not want to show, only show the url. I continuously tried many times. Therefore, I had to revert back to youtube and it embedded call to action above. I downloaded it from adobe spark and uploaded it to you tube and then embedded the video once again to e-portfolio.


I have tried different sites since beginning this program, for video presentations. I have found adobe spark to be the easiest to use so far. I have found that doing voice over with adobe is the best and simplest way to go. I would like to try a different type in the future as well as videoing myself while presenting. Such as, screencastify I believe that would be a more effective way to go.

When developing my presentation I wanted to make a clean effective presentation. I am horrible about my presentations being too wordie. I like the ease, clean look that I chose to use.

After submitting my assignment and trying a few times to make my page look the way I wanted, it just didn’t work out. I want someone to come to my page and have to click minimally. When embedding the link from adobe it was only showing the url to click on and view. I would prefer my video to show up as soon as you arrive at my page.

Therefore, I had to go back and download my video from adobe spark. Then upload to my youtube channel and get the embedded code from there. Then re upload to my e-portfolio. I was hoping that it would work easier than I thought. But, of course it did not. Next time, I will go ahead and upload to youtube as I have done many times before.


Asimov. Isacc. Retrieved from.

EdCan. (2016). Innovation That Sticks Case Study – OCSB: Collaborative Professional Development. Retrieved from.

Goodwin, B. (2015). Research Says/Does Teacher Collaboration Promote Teacher Growth? Educational Leadership, 73(4), 82–83. Retrieved from

Gulamhussein, A. (2013). Teaching the Teachers Effective Professional Development in an Era of High Stakes Accountability. Center for Public Education. Retrieved from

Reynolds, G. (2013). Presentation zen design: simple design principles and techniques to enhance your presentations. New Riders.

How Can Professional Learning Become More Memorable?

I have been an instructor now for the three years on my campus, where I remember one convocation we had someone come to show the entire faculty awesome things to do in our classroom/lecture. I was so motivated. I loved it. It showed us how to get our students more willing to work in groups and create great projects. As well as, wonderful ice breakers to begin with them. My whole department loved the ideas and I wanted to use them. Most of us took notes.  A few days later the students returned and we had already forgotten all the information that we learned that day. We would go back and ask each other how to incorporate this and that. We had our notes but, little memory on how to apply it to health careers. I believe if we had more time to learn the new skill it would help us apply these wonderful ideas that could help our students. I believe they fail because we as instructors/teachers have little time to incorporate PLs into our work day.

Click to access Professional%20Development.pdf

#1 The duration of professional development must be significant and ongoing to allow time for teachers to learn a new strategy and grapple with the implementation problem.

Most studies show that you need to allow 50 to 80 hours for professional development to be properly executed. A teacher learns the same way a student does. As we are students are self. Therefore, they would need time to review, comprehend, and prepare for their classes so their students could learn the information. Learning ten different new ways to collaborate and ideas to engage your students in a four hour day will not always leave your teacher/instructor with something to go back to their classroom with.

#2 There must be support for a teacher during the implementation stage that addresses the specific challenges of changing classroom practice.

If professional development alone only provides are educators with the idea alone and not coaching it will tend to be a forgotten training. Therefore, we should have someone coaching our teachers/instructors on how to implement the learning into their classroom projects. If they need guidance, there should be someone to help them along.

#3 Teachers’ initial exposure to a concept should not be passive, but rather should engage teachers through varied approaches so they can participate actively in making sense of a practice.

When developing a professional learning activity it should be with meaning and purpose as we do for our students. It should make sense and have support that is researchable with the proper facts. Educators want to know statistically how effective it could be at engaging and teaching students.

#4 Modeling has been found to be highly effective in helping teachers understand a new product.

Professional Development could also offer a learning as we do section. Therefore, teachers/instructors could observe another doing the new skills or lesson plan and then reapplying it to that class. Then they could take it back to their classroom and perform the skill.

#5 The content presented to teachers shouldn’t be generic, but instead specific to the discipline or grade-level.

When attending the one professional development section offered to our faculty I was very motivated. But, as I stated before but I noticed when I did try to apply what I remembered it was hard to do so. The reason was because the information was so generic. For instance, I teach Respiratory Care and the instructor next to me taught English. Although, there are a few things we could take back and use such as, ice breakers. But, the really good in-depth ideas were hard. This is where I think professional development lacks. I believe that health careers alone should have their own professional development. My neighbor might teach sonography, radiography, nursing, pharmacy tech, emt, or surgical tech but, we are educating our students for the same purpose and we have different teaching standards.

I love using technology. We are constantly doing something that involves it and the more the better. I love embracing new things and helping my students learn. I believe I am somewhere between the middle to the high tech Kristen Daniels Empowering the Teacher Technophobe spoke on.

Ms. Daniels spoke about three levels of teachers that use technology low, average, and high. Mostly, she stated that if they had a workshop to help them with the ideas on how to use the technology it would help them develop better skills. Other than assuming they have no idea on how to use them at all.

Low technology performers are usually afraid of technology. If they had someone coaching them and guiding them they would be able to do simple things other than just emailing. Average is someone who uses technology most of the time and knows how to do most things on their own. Still has questions on how to incorporate things into other programs and make things easier. If they had someone their for questions they would be able to perform more efficiently. High technology is someone who can do about everything on their own but, lacks the resources to do it. If there was someone in place to help them find the resources to perform the task they would like they would be working more efficiently for their students. As I previously stated I feel like I am in between the average to high performer. I try to find everything I can to make things easier and more engaging for my students as well as myself. But, as we know funding can prevent the resources to do more of the higher technology that I would like to do.

I have one other colleague that graduated from DLL program and she somewhat uses tech a little but the others in my building hardly do. Other than email, blackboard, and some do not even use you tube for instructional pieces. They are learning from me and love all of my ideas and are trying to incorporate into their curriculum. I think as a community college we struggle with PLs, they will send us an email to do them and we answer the questions and move on. I do most of my PLs in my Respiratory Care due to the amount of CEs I have to have to keep my license. I would love to have our campus take the time when we are not lecturing to offer us PLs or extra help to keep us motivated and help us instructor our students the best way we possibly can. Also, if we had the ability to have an instructional coach to I believe it would help college campuses. I do not believe that it has came to that level yet. Most of the professors are still stuck on reading straight from the book. Many have not even began using powerpoint as a point of reference.


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high stakes accountability. center for public education. Retrieved from